|JBOC: Mamluk is a term for a
purchased person recruited as a warrior caste in
Egypt. At a point the Mamluks supplanted the old
order and established a new order with themselves
in charge. The older group were the Bahri Mamluk
who were of Kipchak Turk origin from what is now
the south the the Russian Federation. They
domintaed Egypt for 140 years until they were
supplanted by the Burji Mamluk. Bahri translates
as 'of the River' and the Burji as 'of the Fort
or tower' but the distinction between the two
groups is that the Bahri were of Kipchak origin
and the Burji
Mamluk were of Circassian origin.
Both were primarily Christians purchased to be
soldiers. They were both forced to convert to
Islam. However the Kipchak who were Altaic
Ponto-Caspian Turks were from slightly north of
the Circassians. The Kipchak are identifiable
today as the Cumen and also as a component part
of the Kharchin Mongols.
Circassians who came from Chechnya, Dagestan
and the northern part of Georgia are not Turks at
all but rather are from a distinct North
Caucasian group. Thus the Bahri and Burji Mamluks
appear to most historians as minor variations of
a homogeneous group there were very seperate and
distinct in language and ethnicity to each other.
The Mamluk Dynastys from The Mohammadan
Dynasties Chronological And Genealogical Tables
650922 29. MAMLUK SULTANS
Mamluk means 'owned,' and was generally applied
to a white slave. The Mamluk Sultans of Egypt
were Turkish and Circassian slaves, and had their
origin in the purchased body-guard of the Ayyubid
Sultan -Salih Ayyub. The first of their line was
a woman, Queen Shajar-al-durr, widow of -Salih;
but a representative of the Ayyubid family (Musa)
was accorded the nominal dignity of joint
sovereignty for a few years. Then followed a
succession of slave kings, divided into two
dynasties, the Bahri ('of the River') and the
Burji ('of the Fort') who ruled Egypt and Syria
down to the beginning of the 16th century. In
spite of their short reigns and frequent civil
wars and assassinations, they maintained as a
rule a well-organized government, and Cairo is
still full of proofs of their appreciation of art
and their love of building. Their warlike
qualities were no less conspicuous in their
successful resistance to the Crusaders, and to
the Tatar hordes that overran Asia and menaced
Egypt in the 13th century.
- 648792 A. BAHRI MAMLUKS
- 648 Shajar-al-durr 1250
- 648 -Mu'izz 'Izz-al-din Aybak .... 1250
- 655 -Mansur Nur-al-din 'Ali .... 1257
- 657 -Muzaffer Sayf-al-din Kutuz . . .
- 658 -Zahir Rukn-al-din Baybars -
- 676 -Sa'id Nasir-al-din Baraka Khan. 1277
- 678 -'Adil Badr-al-din Salamish . . .
- 678 -Mansur Sayf-al-din Kalaun . . . 1279
- 689 -Ashraf Salah-al- din Khalil .
. . 1290
- 693 -Nasir
Nasir-al- din Mohammad . . . 1293 Sultan
al Nasir Ibn Mohammad Qalaun
- 694 -'Adil Zayn-al-din Kitbugha . . .
- 696 -Mansur Husam-al-din Lajin . . . 1296
- 698 -Nasir Mohammad (again) .... 1298
- 708 -Muzaffer Rukn-al-din Baybars
- 709 -Nasir Mohammad (third time) . . .
- 741 -Mansur Sayf-al-din Abu-Bakr . . .
- 742 -Ashraf 'Ala-al-din Kujuk .... 1341
- 742 -Nasir Shihab-al-din Ahmad . . . 1342
- 743 -Salih 'Imad-al- din Isma'il ....
- 746 -Kamil Sayf-al-din Sha'ban . . . 1345
- 747 -Muzaffer Sayf-al-din Hajji . . .
- 748 -Nasir Nasir-al-din Hasan.... 1347
- 752 -Salih Salah-al-din Salih.... 1351
- 755 -Nasir Hasan (again)...... 1354
- 762 -Mansur Salah-al-din Mohammad. . 1361
- 764 -Ashraf Nasir-al-din Shaban . .
- 778 -Mansur 'Ala-al-din 'Ali .... 1376
- 783 -Salih Salah-al-din Hajji.... 1381'
- 784 Barkuk (see Burjis) 1382
- 791 Hajji again, with title of -Muzaffer.
792 1390 Burji Mamluks (Burji
means "of the Fort")
- 784-922 B. BURJI MAMLUKS 1382-1517
- 784 -Zahir Sayf-al-din Barkuk....
- [Interrupted by Hajji 791-2.]
- 801 -Nasir Nasir-al-din Faraj .... 1398
- 808 -Mansur 'Izz-al-din 'Abd-al-'Aziz . .
- 809 -Nasir Faraj (again) 1406
- 815 -'Adil -Musta'in ('Abbasid Caliph) .
- 815 -Murayyad Shaykh 1412
- 824 -Muzaffer Ahmad 1421
- 824 -Zahir Sayf-al-din Tatar.... 1421
- 824 -Salih Nasir-al-din Mohammad . . .
- 825 -Ashraf Sayf-al-din Bars-bey . . .
- 842 -'Aziz Jamal-al-din Yusuf .... 1438
- 842 -Zahir Sayf-al-din Jakmak.... 1438
- 857 -Mansur Fakhr-al-din 'Othman . . .
- 857 -Ashraf Sayf-al-din Inal .... 1453
- 865 -Murayyad Shihab-al-din Ahmad . . .
- 865 -Zahir Sayf-al-din Khushkadam . . .
- 872 -Zahir Sayf-al-din Bilbey.... 1467
- 872 -Zahir Timurbugha 1468
- 873 -Ashraf Sayf-al-din Kait-Bey . .
- 901 -Nasir Mohammad . . . . 1495
- 904 -Zahir Kansuh 1498
- 905 -Ashraf Janbalat 1499 (JBOC: Mamluk
Sultan Ashraf Qait Bey
- 906 -Ashraf Kansuh -Ghuri....
1500 (JBOC: Kansu
El-Ghuri Died at the Battle of Marj Dabik)
- 922 -Ashraf Tuman-Bey 1516 Sultan Qansuh
- 1517 [Ottoman Sultans.}
As there are seldom more than two kings of a
family in the above list a genealogical table is
Mohammadan Dynasties Chronological And
Genealogical Tables With Historical Introductions
By Stanley Lane-Poole Westminster Archibald
Constable And Company Publishers To The India
Office 14 Parliament Street MDCCCXCIV